Religious terms:		       Jewish Religious terms:


blasphemy : blas·phe·my \BLAS-fuh-mee\ Plural: blas·phe·mies Function: noun more at tetragrammaton Origin: Middle English blasphemie: Late Latin blasphemia; Greek. blasphemous, -y Date: 1175–1225 1 impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things. 2 Judaism: a an act of cursing or reviling God. b pronunciation of the tetragrammaton (YHVH) in the original, now forbidden manner instead of using a substitute pronunciation such as Adonai. 3 Theology: the crime of assuming to oneself the rights or qualities of God. 4 irreverent behavior toward anything held sacred, priceless, etc.: {He uttered blasphemies against life itself} early 13th century, from Old French blasfemie "blasphemy," from Late Latin blasphemia, from Greek blasphemia "a speaking ill, impious speech, slander," from blasphemein "to speak evil of." Second element is pheme "utterance" (see fame); first element uncertain, perhaps related to blaptikos "hurtful," though blax "slack (in body and mind), stupid" also has been suggested. Synonyms: defilement, desecration, impiety, irreverence, profanation, sacrilege
Antonyms: adoration, glorification, worship
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curate 5 Entries 1 curate (noun) 2 curate (verb) (curate's assistant (noun), curate's egg (noun), diocesan curate (noun)) 1: curate : cu·rate \n. KYOOR-it; or v. kyoo-REYT\ Variants: cu·rat·ed, cu·rat·ing Function: noun Origin: Middle English, from Medieval Latin curatus, from cura cure of souls, from Latin, care. Date: 14th century 1 Chiefly British: a member of the clergy employed to assist a rector or vicar. 2 any ecclesiastic entrusted with the cure of souls, as a parish priest. (from Latin vicarius, "substitute"), an official acting in some special way for a superior, primarily an ecclesiastical title in the Christian Church. In the Roman Empire as reorganized by Emperor Diocletian (reigned 284-305), the vicarius was an important official, and the title remained in use for secular officials in the Middle Ages. In the Roman Catholic Church, "vicar of Christ" became the special designation of the popes starting in the 8th century, and eventually it replaced the older title of "vicar of St. Peter." 2: curate : cu·rate \n. KYOOR-it; or v. kyoo-REYT\ Variants: cu·rat·ed, cu·rat·ing Function: verb Origin: Middle English curat; (Anglo-French); Medieval Latin curatus, equivalent to Latin cur ( a ) care + -atus -ate Date: 1300–50 transitive verb (used with object) : to act or serve as curator of: {curate a museum} {an exhibit curated by the museum's director} — cu·rat·ic adjective \kyoo-rat-ik\ — cu·rat·i·cal adjective — cu·rate·ship noun — sub·cu·rate noun
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doxology : dox·ol·o·gy \dok-SOL-uh-jee\ Plural: dox·ol·o·gies Function: noun Origin: Medieval Latin doxologia; Greek, equivalent to doxo- (combining form of dóxa honor, glory) + -logia -logy Date: 1640–50 1 a hymn or form of words containing an ascription of praise to God. 2 the Doxology: the metrical formula beginning “Praise God from whom all blessings flow.” — dox·o·log·i·cal adjective [dok-suh-log-i-kuhl\ — dox·o·log·i·cal·ly adverb
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eremite : er·e·mite \ER-uh-mahyt\ Function: noun Origin: Middle English; Late Latin eremita hermit Date: 1150–1200 : a hermit or recluse, especially one under a religious vow. circa 1200, learned form of hermit (q.v.), from Church Latin eremita. Since mid-17th century in poetic or rhetorical use only, except in reference to specific examples in early Church history. — er·e·mit·ic adjective \er-uh-mit-ik\ — er·e·mit·i·cal adjective — er·e·mit·ish adjective \er-uh-mahy-tish\ — er·e·mit·ism noun Synonyms: anchorite, recluse, hermit, isolate, solitary
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iconoclasm : i·con·o·clasm \ahy-KON-uh-klaz-uhm\ Function: noun Origin: iconocl(ast) + -asm on model of such pairs as enthusiast: enthusiasm Date: 1790–1800 : the action or spirit of iconoclasts.
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iconoclast : i·con·o·clast \ahy-KON-uh-klast\ Function: noun Origin: Medieval Latin iconoclastes < Medieval Greek eikonoklástes, equivalent to Greek eikono- icono- + -klastes breaker, equivalent to klas- (variant stem of klân to break) + -tes agent noun suffix Date: 1590–1600 1 a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition. 2 a breaker or destroyer of images, especially those set up for religious veneration. "breaker or destroyer of images," 1596, from French iconoclaste, from Middle Latin iconoclastes, from Late Greek eikonoklastes, from eikon (generally eikonos) "image" + klastes "breaker," from klas- participle stem of klan "to break." Originally those in the Eastern Church in 8th century and 9th century whose mobs of followers destroyed icons and other religious objects on the grounds that they were idols. Applied to 16th century -17th century Protestants in Netherlands who vandalized former Catholic churches on similar grounds. Extended sense of "one who attacks orthodox beliefs or institutions" is first attested 1842. Iconoclasm in this sense is from 1858. — i·con·o·clas·tic adjective Synonyms: bohemian, boho, counterculturist, deviant, dissenter, enfant terrible, free spirit, heretic, nonconformist, individualist, loner, lone ranger, lone wolf, maverick, nonconformer, rebel, radical
Antonyms: conformer, conformist
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liturgy : lit·ur·gy \LIT-er-jee\ Plural: lit·ur·gies Function: noun can be confused: litany, compare ashkenazi and sephardi Origin: Late Latin liturgia; Greek leitourgía public service, ecclesiastical Greek: Eucharist, equivalent to leitourg ( ós ) minister + -ia -y Date: 1550–60 1 a form of public worship; ritual. 2 a collection of formularies for public worship. 3 a particular arrangement of services. 4 a particular form or type of the Eucharistic service. 5 the service of the Eucharist, especially this service (Divine Liturgy) in the Eastern Church. — an·ti·lit·ur·gy adjective
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litany : lit·a·ny \LIT-n-ee\ Plural: lit·a·nies Function: noun can be confused liturgy Origin: Late Latin litania; Late Greek litaneía litany, Greek: an entreating, equivalent to litan- (stem of litaínein, variant of litaneúein to pray) + -eia -y; replacing Middle English letanie, Old English letania: Medieval Latin, Late Latin. Date: before 900 1 a ceremonial or liturgical form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications with responses that are the same for a number in succession. 2 the Litany, the supplication in this form in the Book of Common Prayer. 3 a recitation or recital that resembles a litany. 4 a prolonged or tedious account: {We heard the whole litany of their complaints}
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orison : or·i·son \AWR-uh-zuhn, or-\ Function: noun Origin: Middle English; Old French; Late Latin oration- (stem of oratio ) plea, prayer, oration Date: 1125–75 : a prayer. circa 1175, from Anglo-French oreison, Old French oraison "oration" (12th century), from Latin orationem (nominative oratio) "speech, oration," in Church Latin "prayer, appeal to God," from orare (see orator). Etymologically, a doublet of oration.
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pentateuch : Pen·ta·teuch \PEN-tuh-took\ Function: noun compare Torah Origin: Middle English Penteteuke, from Late Latin Pentateuchus, from Greek Pentateuchos, equivalent to Greek penta- penta- + teûchos tool, vessel, book, from teuchein to make. (Late Greek: scroll case book) Date: 15th century : the first five books of Jewish and Christian Scriptures; Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. first five books of the Bible, circa 1405, from Late Latin pentateuchus (Tertullian, circa 207), from Greek pentateuchos (circa 160), originally an adjective (abstracted from phrase pentateuchos biblos), from pente "five" + teuchos "implement, vessel, gear" (in Late Greek. "book," via notion of "case for scrolls"), literally "anything produced," related to teuchein (touché) "to make ready," from Proto-Indo-European *dheugh- "to produce something of utility." — Pen·ta·teuch·al adjective
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perdition : per·di·tion \per-DISH-un\ Function: noun Origin: Latin perdition- (stem of perditio ) destruction, equivalent to perdit ( us ) (past participle of perdere to do in, ruin, lose, equivalent to per- per- + di-, combining form of dare to give + -tus past participle suffix) + -ion -ion; replacing Middle English perdiciun; Old French; Latin, as above Date: 1300–50 1 a state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul; eternal damnation 2 hell 3 the future state of the wicked. 4 utter destruction or ruin. 5 Obsolete: loss. mid-14th century, "fact of being lost or destroyed," from Old French perdiciun (11th century), from Late Latin perditionem (nom. perditio) "ruin, destruction," from Latin perditus, past participle of perdere "do away with, destroy, lose, throw away," from per- "through" (here perhaps with intensive or completive force, "to destruction") + -dare "to put" (see date (1)). Special theological sense of "condition of damnation, spiritual ruin, state of souls in Hell" (late 14th century) has gradually extinguished the general use of the word.
"Perdition" began life as a word meaning "utter destruction"; that sense is now archaic, but it provides a clue about the origins of the word. "Perdition" was borrowed into English in the 14th century from Anglo-French "perdiciun" and ultimately derives from the Latin verb "perdere," meaning "to destroy." "Perdere" was formed by combining the prefix "per–" ("through") and "dare" ("to give"). Other descendants of that Latin "dare" in English include "date," "edition," "render," and "traitor."
Synonyms: Gehenna, Pandemonium, hell, Tophet
Antonyms: bliss, elysian fields, Elysium, empyrean, heaven, kingdom come, New Jerusalem, paradise, sky, Zion (also Sion)
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pneuma : pneu·ma \NOO-muh, nyoo-muh\ Function: noun Origin: Greek pneûma literally, breath, wind, akin to pneîn to blow, breathe Date: 1875–85 1 the vital spirit; the soul. 2 Theology: the Spirit of God; the Holy Ghost.
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reliquary : rel·i·quar·y \REL-i-kwer-ee\ Plural: rel·i·quar·ies Function: noun Origin: French reliquaire, from Medieval Latin reliquiarium, from reliquia relic Date: 1652 : a repository or receptacle for relics.
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ashkenazi or ashkenazim : Ash·ke·naz·i \ ahsh-kuh-NAH-zee\ Singular : Ash·ke·naz·im \ahsh-kuh-NAH-zim\ Plural Function: noun compare sephardi, see liturgy Origin: post-Biblical Hebrew ashkenazzim, plural of ashkenazzi, equivalent to ashkenaz Ashkenaz + -i suffix of appurtenance. Late Hebrew Ashkenazi, from Ashkenaz, medieval rabbinical name for Germany Date: 1830–40 : Jews of central and eastern Europe, or their descendants, distinguished from the Sephardim chiefly by their liturgy, religious customs, and pronunciation of hebrew. "central and northern European Jews" (as opposed to Sephardim, Jews of Spain and Portugal), 1839, from Hebrew Ashkenazzim, plural of Ashkenaz, eldest son of Gomer (Genisis. x.3), also the name of a people mentioned in Jeremiah li.27 (perhaps akin to Greek skythoi "Scythians," cf. Akkad. ishkuzai); in Middle Ages, applied to Germany.
There are two common methods for pronouncing Hebrew, the Ashkenazic or German style and the Sephardic or Spanish style. Sephardic is closer to ancient Hebrew than is Ashkenazic.
— Ash·ke·naz·ic adjective
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augur : au·gur \AW-ger\ Function: noun more at dybbuk, tabernacle Origin: Latin augur (variant of auger ) a diviner, soothsayer, derivative of augere to augment with orig. implication of “prosper”; compare august Date: 1540–50 1 one of a group of ancient Roman officials (an official diviner of ancient Rome) charged with observing and interpreting omens for guidance in public affairs. 2 soothsayer; prophet. Synonyms: prophet, diviner, forecaster, foreseer, foreteller, fortune-teller, futurist, prognosticator, prophesier, seer, soothsayer, visionary 2: augur : au·gur \AW-ger\ Function: verb Origin: metathetic variant of argue; noun perhaps by association with auger Date: 1920–25 transitive verb (used with object) 1 to foretell, divine or predict, as from omens; prognosticate. 2 to serve as an omen or promise of; foreshadow; betoken: {Mounting sales augur a profitable year.} intransitive verb (used without object) 1 to give promise of; presage: {higher pay augurs a better future} 2 to predict the future especially from omens. 1540's, from Latin augur, a religious official in ancient Rome who foretold events by interpreting omens, perhaps originally meaning "an increase in crops enacted in ritual," in which case it probably is from Old Latin *augos (gen. *augeris) "increase," and is related to augere "increase" (see augment). The more popular theory is that it is from Latin avis "bird," since the flights, singing, and feeding of birds, along with entrails from bird sacrifices, were important objects of divination (cf. auspicious). The second element would be from garrire "to talk." The verb is circa 1600, from the noun. Synonyms: bode, forebode (also forbode), promise
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challah : chal·lah \KHAH-luh, hah\ Also: chal·leh, hallah Function: noun Origin:Hebrew hallah; from Yiddish khale, from Hebrew chala "loaf of bread." Date: 1907 : egg-rich yeast-leavened bread that is usually braided or twisted before baking and prepared especially for the Jewish sabbath and holidays.
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dybbuk : dyb·buk \Sephardic Hebrew - dee-BOOK; Ashkenazic Hebrew, English - DIB-uhk\ Singular : dyb·bu·kim \Sephardic Hebrew - dee-boo-keem; Ashkenazic Hebrew - dih-book-im\ Plural (also dybbuks) Function: noun see augur, compare ashkenazi and sephardi Origin: Yiddish dibek, from Late Hebrew dibbuq Date: circa 1903 Jewish Folklore: a demon, or the soul of a dead person, that enters the body of a living person and directs the person's conduct, exorcism being possible only by a religious ceremony. 1903, "malevolent spirit of a dead person possessing the body of a living one," from Jewish folklore, from Heb. dibbuk, from dabak "to cling, cleave to."
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Gemara : Ge·ma·ra \guh-MAHR-uh\ Seph. Heb. \guh-mah-RAH\; Ashk. Heb. \guh-MAW-ruh\ Function: noun more at Talmud Origin: Aramaic gemara completion Date: 1613 1 the section of the Talmud consisting essentially of commentary on the Mishnah. 2 the Talmud. Judaism; See also Talmud. The main body of the Talmud, consisting of a record of ancient rabbinical debates about the interpretation of the Mishna and constituting the primary source of Jewish religious law — Ge·ma·ric adjective — Ge·ma·rist noun
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Hagiographa : Hag·i·og·ra·pha \hag-ee-OG-ruh-fuh\ \hey-jee-OG-ruh-fuh\ Function: noun (used with a singular verb) more at Tanach Origin: Late Latin; Greek: sacred writings, equivalent to hagio- hagio- + -grapha, neuter plural of -graphos -graph Date: 1583 : also called: Writings; the third of the three main parts into which the books of the Old Testament are divided in Jewish tradition (the other two parts being the Law and the Prophets), comprising Psalms, Proverbs, Job, the Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. the holy writings, a term which came early into use in the Christian church to denote the third division of the Old Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e., "Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the Kethubim, or Writings. (See BIBLE.) In the New Testament (Luke 24:44) we find three corresponding divisions, viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.
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Halakhah Also: Halakah, Halachah, Halacha. : Ha·la·khah \hah-LAW-khuh\ Seph. Heb: hah-lah-KHAH\ Ashk. Heb: \hah-law-khaw\ Plural: \hah-LA·KHAHS\ Hebrew: \hah-LA-KHOTH\ \hah-LA-KHOT\ \hah-LAK-HOS\ Function: noun Seph: \hah-lah-khawt\ Ashk: \hah-law-khohs\ Origin: Hebrew halakhah, literally, way. more at Talmud Date: 1855–60 1 (often lowercase ) the entire body of Jewish law and tradition comprising the laws of the Bible, the oral law as transcribed in the legal portion of the Talmud, and subsequent legal codes amending or modifying traditional precepts to conform to contemporary conditions. 2 a law or tradition established by the Halakhah. — Ha·la·khic adjective \huh-LAH-khik, huh-LAK-ik\
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heder or cheder : he·der \KHEY-duhr\ English: \KHEY-der\ Plural: hadarim \khuh-DAH-rim\ Function: noun more at Talmud (Torah), Yeshiva Origin: Yiddish kheyder, from Hebrew heedher room Date: 1882 1 (especially in Europe) a private Jewish elementary school for teaching children hebrew, Bible, and the fundamentals of Judaism. 2 an elementary Jewish school in which children are taught to read the Torah and other books in Hebrew 3 (in the U.S.) Talmud Torah [2]. 4 informal a place of corrective instruction; prison. 5 a variant spelling of cheder
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kashruth : kash·ruth \Seph. Heb. kahsh-ROOT\ \Ashk. Heb. KAHSH-root, -ruhs; English. KAHSH-ruhth\ Also: kash·rut Function: noun more at kosher [5], compare ashkenazi and sephardi Origin: Hebrew: literally, appropriateness, fitness. Date: 1905–10 1 the body of dietary laws prescribed for Jews: an observer of kashruth. 2 fitness for use with respect to Jewish law: the kashruth of a religious object. 3 the state of being kosher
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kosher 5 Entries 1 kosher (adjective) 2 kosher (verb) 3 kosher (noun) 4 kosher hide (noun) 5 glatt kosher (adjective) 1: kosher : ko·sher \KOH-sher\ Function: adjective see kashruth Origin: Yiddish, from Hebrew kasher fit, proper. 1920–25 for definition 2; Yiddish; Hebrew kasher right, fit Date: 1850-55 1 Judaism: a fit or allowed to be eaten or used, according to the dietary or ceremonial laws:{kosher meat} {kosher dishes} {a kosher tallith} b adhering to the laws governing such fitness: {a kosher restaurant} 2 Informal: a proper; legitimate, acceptable, or satisfactory: {is the deal kosher?} b genuine; authentic. 2: kosher : ko·sher \KOH-sher\ Variants: ko·shered, ko·sher·ing Function: verb Also: kasher Date: 1871 transitive verb (used with object) Judaism: to make kosher: {to kosher meat by salting} 3: kosher : ko·sher \KOH-sher\ Function: noun Also: kasher Date: 1886 1 Informal: kosher food: {Let's eat kosher tonight} 2 the observance of kosher practices Idiom: keep kosher, to adhere to the dietary laws of Judaism. "ritually fit or pure" (especially of food), 1851, from Yiddish kosher, from Hebrew kasher "fit, proper, lawful," from base of kasher "was suitable, proper." General sense of "correct, legitimate" is from 1896. — non·ko·sher adjective, noun — un·ko·sher adjective 4: kosher hide : ko·sher hide \KOH-sher HIDE\ Function: noun : the hide of an animal slaughtered in accordance with rabbinical law by crosswise cutting of the throat — called also cutthroat 5: glatt kosher : glatt ko·sher \GLAHT KOH-sher\ Function: noun Origin: Yiddish glat literally, smooth, even; Middle High German (German glatt), Old High German: bright, shining; see glad Date: 1950–55 Judaism: 1 prepared for eating according to the dietary laws followed by Hasidic Jews, which differ somewhat from those followed by other observers of kashruth: {glatt kosher meat} 2 adhering to these laws: {a glatt kosher restaurant} 3 (loosely) strictly kosher.
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Mishnah Also: Mish·na : Mish·nah Eng., Ashk. Heb: \MISH-nuh\ more at Talmud : Mish·nah Seph. Heb: \meesh-NAH\ Plural: Mish·na·yoth, Mish·na·yot, Mish·na·yos; Function: noun Eng., Ashk. Heb: mish-nuh-yohs; Seph. Heb: \meesh-nah-yawt\ Eng. Mish·nahs; Judaism Origin: Medieval Hebrew mishnah literally, teaching by oral repetition Date: 1600–10 1 the collection of oral laws, mostly halachic Jewish traditions, compiled about a.d. 200 by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi and forming the basic part of the Talmud. 2 an article or section of this collection. the first part of the Talmud; a collection of early oral interpretations of the scriptures that was compiled about AD 200 [syn: Mishna] — Mish·na·ic adjective \mish-NEY-ik\ — Mish·nic adjective — Mish·ni·cal adjective — post-Mish·na·ic adjective — post-Mish·nic adjective — post-Mish·ni·cal adjective
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Sephardi or Sephardim : Se·phar·di \suh-FAHR-dee\ \suh-fahr-DEE\ Singular : Se·phar·dim \suh-FAHR-dim\ \suh-fahr-DEEM\ Plural Function: noun compare ashkenazi, see liturgy Origin: Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim, plural of Sepharaddi, equivalent to Hebrew Sepharadh (region mentioned in Bible (Obadiah 20) and assumed to be Spain) + -i suffix of appurtenance Date: 1850–55 : Jews of Spain and Portugal or their descendants, distinguished from the Ashkenazim and other Jewish communities chiefly by their liturgy, religious customs, and pronunciation of hebrew: after expulsion from Spain and Portugal in 1492, established communities in North Africa, the Balkans, Western Europe, and elsewhere. plural Sephardi "a Spanish or Portuguese Jew" (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim "Spaniards, Jews of Spain," from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. verse 1:20 (Obadiah in Old Testament) [the meaning of Obed is "servant of God; worshipper, follower"], probably meaning "Asia Minor" or a country in it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after Jonathan Targum as "Spain."
There are two common methods for pronouncing Hebrew, the Ashkenazic or German style and the Sephardic or Spanish style. Sephardic is closer to ancient Hebrew than is Ashkenazic.
— Se·phar·dic adjective
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tabernacle 2 Entries 1 tabernacle (noun) 2 tabernacle (verb) 1: tabernacle : tab·er·nac·le \TAB-er-nak-uhl\ Variants: tab·er·nac·led, tab·er·nac·ling Function: noun see augur Origin: Middle English; Late Latin tabernaculum, Latin: tent, equivalent to tabern (a) hut, stall, inn (compare tavern) + -aculum, probably extracted from hibernaculum winter quarters ( see hibernaculum) Date: 1200–50 1 any place or house of worship, especially one designed for a large congregation. 2 Capitalized: the portable sanctuary in use by the Israelites from the time of their wandering in the wilderness after the Exodus from Egypt to the building of the Temple in Jerusalem by Solomon. Exodus 25–27. 3 Ecclesiastical: an ornamental receptacle for the reserved Eucharist, now generally found on the altar. 4 a canopied niche or recess, as for an image or icon. 5 a temporary dwelling or shelter, as a tent or hut. 6 a dwelling place. 7 the human body as the temporary abode of the soul. mid-13th century, "portable sanctuary carried by the Israelites in the wilderness," from Old French tabernacle (12th century), from Latin tabernaculum "tent," especially "a tent of an augur (for taking observations), diminative of taberna "hut, cabin, booth" (see tavern). Transferred late 14th century to the Temple in Jerusalem (which continued its function). Sense of "house of worship" first recorded 1690's. The Jewish Feast of Tabernacles (mid-October) was observed as a thanksgiving for harvest. 2: tabernacle : tab·er·nac·le \TAB-er-nak-uhl\ Variants: tab·er·nac·led, tab·er·nac·ling Function: verb Date: 1653 intransitive verb (used without object) : to take up temporary residence; especially: to inhabit a physical body intransitive verb (used without object) or transitive verb (used with object) : to place or dwell in, or as if in, a tabernacle. — tab·er·nac·u·lar adjective \tab-er-nak-yuh-ler\ — un·tab·er·nac·led adjective Synonyms: kirk [chiefly Scottish], church, temple
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Talmud : Tal·mud \TAHL-mood, TAHL-muhd\ Function: noun more at heder, Mishnah, Gemara, Halakhah, Yeshiva Origin: Hebrew talmudh literally, instruction Date: 1525–35 1 the collection of Jewish law and tradition consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara and being either the edition produced in Palestine a.d. circa 400 or the larger, more important one produced in Babylonia a.d. circa 500. 2 the Gemara. — Tal·mu·dic adjective — tal·mud·ism noun (often capitalized) Talmud Torah : Tal·mud To·rah, Called also: heder - he·der \khey-duhr; English: khey-der\ Plural: ha·da·rim \khuh-dah-rim\ English: he·ders; Yiddish Function: noun Sephardic: \tahl-mood, taw-rah\; Ashkenazic: \tahl-mood, toh-ruh\; English: \tahl-muhd tawr-uh, tohr-uh, tal-\ Date: circa 1880 compare ashkenazi and sephardi Hebrew: 1 a variant spelling of cheder 1 (in Europe) a community-supported Jewish elementary school for teaching children hebrew, Bible, and the fundamentals of Judaism. 2 (in the U.S.) a Jewish religious school for children, holding classes at the end of the secular school day. Talmud Torah schools were created in the Jewish world, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic, as a form of public primary school for boys of modest backgrounds, where they were given an elementary education in Hebrew, the Scriptures (especially the Pentateuch), and the Talmud (and Halakhah). This was meant to prepare them for Yeshiva or, particularly in the movement's modern form, for Jewish education at a high school level. The Talmud Torah was modelled after the Cheder, a traditional form of schooling whose essential elements it incorporated, with changes appropriate to its public form rather than the heder's "private" financing through less formal or institutionalized mechanisms, including tuition fees and donations.
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Tanach : Ta·nach \tah-NAHKHnahkh\ Function: noun Hebrew compare Hagiographa, Torah Origin: vocalization of Hebrew TNK, for Torah law + Nebhi'im prophets + Kethubhim (other) writings : the three Jewish divisions of the Old Testament, comprising the Law or Torah, the Prophets or Neviim, and the Hagiographa or Ketuvim, taken as a whole. the Hebrew Bible as used by Jews, divided into the Torah, Prophets, and Hagiographa [from Hebrew, acronym formed from torah (the Pentateuch), nebi'im (the prophets), and ketubim (the Hagiographa)]
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tetragrammaton : Tet·ra·gram·ma·ton \te-truh-GRAM-uh-ton\ Function: noun compare Yahweh, more at blasphemy Origin: Middle English; Greek tetragrámmaton, noun use of neuter of tetragrámmatos having four letters, equivalent to tetra- tetra- + grammat- (stem of grámma ) letter + -os adjective suffix Date: 1350–1400 : the hebrew word for God, consisting of the four letters yod, he, vav, and he, transliterated consonantally usually as YHVH, now pronounced as Adonai or Elohim in substitution for the original pronunciation forbidden since the 2nd or 3rd century b.c. circa 1400, from Greek (to) tetragrammaton "(the word) of four letters," from tetra- "four" + gramma (generally grammatos) "letter, something written." The Hebrew divine name, transliterated as YHWH, usually vocalized in English as "Jehovah" or "Yahweh." Bible Sometimes shortened to: Tetragram the Hebrew name for God revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus 3), consisting of the four consonants Y H V H (or Y H W H)and regarded by Jews as too sacred to be pronounced. It is usually transliterated as Jehovah or Yahweh.
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Torah . : To·rah \TOH-ruh, TAWR-uh\ Seph. Heb: \toh-RAH\ Ashk. Heb: \TOH-ruh, TOI-ruh\ Also: To·ra Function: noun (sometimes lowercase) compare Pentateuch, Tanach Origin: Hebrew torah instruction, law Date: 1577 1a the Pentateuch, being the first of the three Jewish divisions of the Old Testament. Compare Tanach. b the five books of Moses constituting the Pentateuch. 2a a parchment scroll on which the Pentateuch is written, used in synagogue services. b a leather or parchment scroll of the Pentateuch used in a synagogue for liturgical purposes. 3a the entire body of Jewish religious literature, law, and teaching as contained chiefly in the Old Testament and the Talmud. b the body of wisdom and law contained in Jewish Scripture and other sacred literature and oral tradition 4 law or instruction. "the Pentateuch," 1577, from Hebrew torah, literally "instruction, law," verbal noun from horah "he taught, showed."
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Yahweh : Yah·weh \YAH-we\ Variants: Yah·weh also Jah·veh or Yah·veh Function: noun Also, Yah·we, Yah·veh, Yah·ve \YAH-ve\, Jahveh, Jahve, Jahweh, Jahwe Origin: Hebrew Yahweh compare tetragrammaton Date: 1869 1 god — used especially by the ancient Hebrews 2 a name of God, transliterated by scholars from the Tetragrammaton and commonly rendered jehovah. {a count of the number of times Yahweh is mentioned in the Old Testament} Synonyms: Allah, Almighty, Author, Creator, Divinity, Eternal, Everlasting, Father, God, Godhead, Jehovah, Lord, Maker, Providence, Supreme Being, deity (also Jahveh or Yahveh)
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yarmulke : yar·mul·ke \YAHR-muhl-kuh\ Also: yar·mel·ke, yar·mul·ka Function: noun Origin: Yiddish yarmlke; Polish jarmulka (earlier jalmurka, jamulka ) or Ukrainian yarmúlka; Turkic; compare Turkish yagmurluk rain apparel, equivalent to yagmur rain + -luk noun suffix of appurtenance Date: 1940–45 Judaism: a skullcap worn, especially during prayer and religious study, by Jewish males, especially those adhering to Orthodox or Conservative tradition. 1903, from Yiddish yarmulke, from Polish. jarmulka, originally "a skullcap worn by priests," perhaps ultimatly from Medieval Latin almutia "cowl, hood."
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Yeshiva Also: ye·shi·vah, ye·shi·vah : ye·shi·va \yuh-SHEE-vuh\ Function: noun more at heder Origin: Hebrew (post-Biblical) yeshibhah literally, a sitting Date: 1925–30 1 an Orthodox Jewish school for the religious and secular education of children of elementary school age. 2 an Orthodox Jewish school of higher instruction in Jewish learning, chiefly for students preparing to enter the rabbinate. "Orthodox Jewish college or seminary," 1851, from Hebrew. yesibah "academy," literally "a sitting," from yashav "to sit."
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Zion : Zi·on \ZAHY-uhn\ Also, Sion ( for[1–4]) Function: noun Origin: Hebrew siyyon; replacing Middle English, Old English Sion; Late Latin (Vulgate) Sion; Greek (Septuagint) Sei?n; Hebrew, as above Date: before 1000 1 a hill in Jerusalem, on which the Temple was built (used to symbolize the city itself, especially as a religious or spiritual center). 2 the Jewish people. 3 Palestine as the Jewish homeland and symbol of Judaism. 4 heaven as the final gathering place of true believers; Utopia. 5 a city in NE Illinois. 17,861. Old English Sion, from Greek Seon, from Hebrew Tsiyon, name of a Canaanite hill fortress in Jerusalem captured by David and called in the Bible "City of David." It became the center of Jewish life and worship. Zionism "movement for forming (later supporting) a Jewish national state in Palestine" first attested 1896, from German Zionismus (from Zion + Latin -derived suffix -ismus), first recorded 1886 in "Selbstemancipation," by "Matthias Acher" (pseudonym of Nathan Birnbaum). Synonyms: above, bliss, elysian fields, Elysium, empyrean, kingdom come, New Jerusalem, paradise, sky, heaven (also Sion)
Antonyms: Gehenna, hell, Pandemonium, perdition
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